“Tourette syndrome: complex, challenging, enigmatic, internal world.” James Leckman
ESCAP 2009 Congress in Budapest, Hungary: original abstract by professor James Leckman, Yale University, The Child Study Center and the Department of Psychology and Pediatrics, New Haven, USA – “Tourette Syndrome: The Relentless Drumbeat”, Plenary Session VII., 25 August 2009, 09:00, Chaired by A. Apter (Israel).
Next, we conclude that the functional MRI findings also support the importance of the interaction of the Associative as well as the Sensorimotor networks in tic initiation and suppression and suggest that the Limbic network may also play a role. Similarly, preliminary electrophysiological studies of alpha coherence support the interaction of the Associative and Sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia networks during periods of tic suppression. Preliminary data also point to this interaction being crucial to an understanding of why Habit Reversal Training is efficacious. It might also provide a basis for why tics often partially remit by early adulthood. Preliminary MEG studies point to the importance of the Sensorimotor network in understanding the thalamocortical dysrhythmias associated with tics and the potential value of the Supplementary Motor Area as a target for repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. The current targets for Deep Brain Stimulation are also consistent with these networks being key to the emergence of tics. Finally, despite significant progress, much remains to be learned before we gain a full understanding of the complex, challenging, enigmatic, internal world that is TS.